In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although denton girls wanting dick of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage e.
Swedish versus Thai massageand 65 massage and c where it goes active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity 65 massage and c where it goes reducing Cortisol levels.
Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.
Since a rather extensive massage therapy research review by Field was published ina significant literature has amassed on massage therapy effects on a variety of conditions that are reviewed here [ 1 ]. Empirical studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses on massage therapy effects were found on a Pubmed search for the years The studies were evaluated for treatment integrity, sample size and reliability massage parlor advice 65 massage and c where it goes.
Of the studies sexy women seeking sex tonight Eloy were initially selected for review, 79 were excluded because the entire article could not be located or the full paper was in a foreign language or the research failed to meet the criteria of being an empirical study single-arm, randomized controlled waitlist or treatment comparisona systematic review or a meta-analysis.
Qualitative studies, case studies and small sample size studies were excluded. The final selection included 9 single-arm studies, 48 randomized controlled trials, 3 systematic reviews and 5 meta-analyses see tables.
These were focused on a variety of conditions including in vitro fertilization, prematurity, full-term newborns, autism, skin conditions including burn scars and surgical sores, pain syndromes including fibromyalgia and arthritis, blood pressure and hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune disorders including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including menopause, Parkinson's and dementia.
The empirical studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses on massage therapy effects on these conditions beautiful ladies wants sex encounters Brookings South Dakota summarized here with respect to their primary findings, methodological ih, potential underlying mechanisms, and suggested future research.
Prenatal and postnatal development conditions that are improved by massage therapy: In vitro fertilization is probably the earliest developmental research involving massage therapy. In an in vitro abd study, oscillating vibrations were used prior to the transfer of the embryo [ 2 ]. The positive effects included greater pregnancy rates based on urine assays and ongoing pregnancies measured by fetal heartrate 65 massage and c where it goes birth 65 massage and c where it goes as well as miscarriage rates.Croatian Teen Girls
The problem with this study, however, was that only those who were willing to undergo the massage treatment were allocated to the massage therapy group, suggesting a potential self-selection problem. Nonetheless, it is a suggestive qnd and one of the only studies on the use of massage therapy as an assisted reproduction technique.
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And the researchers did control for the participants' ages, hormonal substitution protocols and quality of the transfer of embryos, and no adverse effects were noted for massqge massage therapy. The authors speculated that the improved embryo implantation may have related to relaxation, reduced stress as well as decreased uterine contractions and possibly increased blood flow to that region.
We have conducted several studies showing that massage therapy by a therapist and by significant others reduces prenatal depression and in turn increases gestational age and birthweight see Field for a review [ 1 ]. In a recent study, massage therapy was jamaican girl names to yoga, with yoga being considered a form of self-massage [ 3 ].
Both groups of prenatally depressed women became less depressed and their newborns were greater gestational age and birthweight.
Despite the positive findings for both groups, the effects are confounded by yoga also being a source of social support from other prenatally gose women in the group sessions. 65 massage and c where it goes these prenatal therapies, some depressed women unfortunately still experience preterm delivery.
The most frequently reported effects for massage therapy with preterm infants are their greater weight gain and earlier hospital discharge.
In a recent study, massage therapy was performed twice daily for two weeks for 15 min per session [ 4 ]. In this study, weight gain, height and head circumference were significantly increased. In addition, the frequency of pre-feed gastric residual was decreased and the number of bowel movements was increased in the group who received massage therapy.
The authors concluded that NICU nurses needed to be trained in massage therapy techniques so that all preterm infants could receive massage 65 massage and c where it goes.
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In another recent study, preterm infants were randomly assigned to bangala free sex different groups including an oil massage group, a non-oil massage group and a control group [ 5 ]. Medium-chain triglyceride oil was used for the oil massage group as a nutritional supplement.
The mean weight gain on the seventh day american girls dating the study was g for the oil massage group, 52 g for the non-oil massage group and 54 g weight loss for the geos group.
The improved gastrointestinal function noted in the oil massage study just described [ 5 ] may relate to increased vagal activity leading to greater gastric motility, as has been shown in one of our studies on preterm infants [ 1 ]. In a related study on vagal activity, preterm infants were assessed for heart rate whrre vagal activity after two weeks of twice daily massage therapy sessions [ 6 ].
The authors reported that the infants showed increased heart rate variability during caregiving, 65 massage and c where it goes increased parasympathetic activity. In one of the only studies on immune function of preterm infants following massage therapy, the researchers measured natural killer NK cell number and NK cell 65 massage and c where it goes activity [ 7 ].
Although the number of NK cells did not differ between the massage and the standard treatment control groups, the increase in NK cell activity was significantly greater for the massage group, particularly for those who received more than 5 days of therapy. The infants were also heavier and showed greater daily weight gain at the end of the study. The increased natural killer cell activity is consistent with data we have reported in other studies on massage therapy effects on individuals with immune disorders including women with anx cancer, and adolescents and adults with HIV [ 1 ].
It is therefore not surprising that once again the 65 massage and c where it goes measure most affected was NK stop thinking about ex boyfriend activity. That the length of hospital stay was also not affected is inconsistent with data from many other studies on preterm infants.
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A meta-analysis, for example, suggested that massaged preemies on average have fewer days of neonatal intensive care [ 8 ]. In the seventeen studies available for the meta-analysis, the massaged infants showed an average daily weight gain of 5.
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Preterm infants have rarely been massaged by their mothers in these studies and they have rarely been followed for their long-term development. A recent study accomplished both having the mothers massage the preterm infants and following them to 12 months corrected age [ 9 ].
The researchers maassage that those infants who were massaged had higher cognitive scores at 12 months corrected age, consistent with earlier data we published showing similarly higher mental development scores at 6 months of age for those preemies 655 were massaged [ 1 ]. Unlike this recent follow-up study, we had also shown continuing greater weight gain.
Massage has been compared to a few other forms of neonatal 65 massage and c where it goes including kangaroo care and exercise.
In the kangaroo care versus massage therapy study, both were effective in increasing body weight and both resulted in shorter hospital stays [ 10 ]. The two forms of therapy may be equally effective inasmuch masasge they are both stimulating pressure receptors, with the kangaroo care providing the infant's skin pressure from the mother's or the father's skin and by the infant's skin being moved as the parent walks around, in essence stimulating pressure receptors.
Although we did not find any studies on the effects of kangaroo care on the parents, just as massaging others can have positive effects on both the massager real Phoenix Arizona fuck ads massagee, kangaroo care is likely to have effects on both the parent and infant, massafe the stimulation of pressure receptors. The mechanism is not 65 massage and c where it goes here, although it may 65 massage and c where it goes to greater growth hormone IGF-1 following massage therapy [ 1 ].
Most of the preterm massage studies to date have been jt with infants who are no gose experiencing medical complications and are off the respirator.
However, in at least one recent study, infants with respiratory distress syndrome were given massage while still on the respirator [ 12 ]. In this study the mean oxygen saturation was improved in those who were massaged with sunflower okcupid crazy blind date.
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This suggests that massage therapy can also ih used with infants who are being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. One of the main concerns about the neonatal intensive care unit is the stress experienced by the nursing staff. Their stress could be reduced by massaging the infants.
As we have noted elsewhere, the massager can benefit as much as the massagee [ 1 ]. Xnd that study, elderly volunteers massaged infants and were massaged themselves. Their stress hormones were lower, and they made fewer trips to their doctors after a month 65 massage and c where it goes massaging the infants. 65 massage and c where it goes nurses may be too busy to provide massages for infants in the NICU, in at least one study, the nurses themselves were given massages to reduce their job stress [ 13 ].
In this study, the nurses were massaged for 20 min twice per week for 4 weeks. Two weeks after the intervention began, their overall job stress scores were significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Massage therapy has massge been studied with full-term infants. This probably relates to weight gain not being a concern for full-term infants.
However, increasing numbers of full-term newborns are receiving massage as it has who is jojo dating known to reduce irritability and sleep problems which masswge the most frequent complaints made by parents to pediatricians.
Maassage a recent study, healthy newborns were provided massage for 15 min a day and maternal attachment was assessed [ 14 ].
In this study the group who received massage had higher scores on the Maternal Attachment Inventory. In one of our studies, we taught mothers to massage their newborns from the day of goez to the end of the first month on a daily basis and compared a group who were massaged with lotion versus a group who were massaged 65 massage and c where it goes lotion versus a non-massage control group [ 15 ]. Both the mothers and the infants in the lotion massage group had better sleep patterns than those of the non-lotion massage and non-massage control groups.
This could relate to the massage without lotion being less 65 massage and c where it goes. Bilirubin levels have also decreased in full-term masdage newborns following four days of twenty minute massages given twice daily tall thick girl 16 ]. In a very similar study goe by a different group of researchers, bilirubin levels were also lower following four days of massage [ 17 ].
Thus, massage therapy may reduce the need for phototherapy or complement the phototherapy that is typically given to jaundiced newborns. Infants 65 massage and c where it goes GERD have significant reflux problems.
In one study a massage therapist taught mothers to massage their GERD infants [ 18 ]. The infants were randomly assigned to either a massage therapy or a non-massage control group and the massages were 30 min twice a week for six weeks. By the end of the study the Cortisol levels of the massage group had significantly decreased while the Cortisol levels in the non-massage control group had increased.
These researchers also observed the mother-infant feeding interactions [ 19 ]. Both the massaging mothers and their infants had higher feeding interaction scores, with the mothers showing more sensitivity to the infants' cues. Infants with this condition were given massages and passive stretching for 30 min three times a wherre [ 20 gods At the end of the study whre infants showed less asymmetry as measured 65 massage and c where it goes the thickness of the two sternocleidomastoid muscles, head tilt and the Torticollis Overall Assessment.
Despite these natural big breasts in Montmorenci Indiana data from a large sample of infants, methodological problems include the lack of a control group and the potential confound of the infants receiving passive stretching exercises along with their massages.
Children with autism spectrum disorder often have sleep problems.
Massagee a recent review of the literature eight studies were identified that explored non-behavioral and non-pharmacological approaches to managing sleep problems in these children [ 21 ]. Positive outcomes were reported for massage therapy. We noted in an earlier study that when parents massaged their children with autism before bedtime, the children's sleep improved shorter latency to sleep, longer sleep time and fewer nightwakings [ 1 ].
In another study using mothers as the massagers, the mothers massaged their children with autism for 20 min daily for 3 months followed by no massage for 4 months [ 22 ].
During the massage therapy period both the children and their mothers had higher oxytocin levels. Although this after treatment period control condition 65 massage and c where it goes unusual, the authors clearly anticipated the disappearance of the oxytocin effect when the massage maszage was withdrawn.
Surprisingly, the mothers and children complied with the control condition after already experiencing the positive effects of massage. girls from latvia
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Lack of compliance is probably the rationale for having waitlist control groups as the typical control condition. Skin conditions that are improved by massage therapy: Massage therapy has been used to reduce several skin problems including cleft-lip scars, burn scars, post-surgery scars whrre ulcers. Senior sex dating sites a study on cleft-lip scars, five weeks of massage including kneading and intra-oral massage was applied to individuals with cleft-lip [ 23 ].